Mazarin, Jules, Cardinal

(1602-1661) (Giulio Mazarini)
   cardinal, statesman
   Of Italian origin, Jules Mazarin (Giulio Mazarini), who controlled the French government during the minority of King louis XIV and helped make France the predominant European power, was born in Pescina, in the Abruzzi (Italy). A protégé, like other members of his family, of the Roman Colonna princes, Mazarin went from serving in the papal army to diplomacy. on a mission to Paris (1630), he met armand jean du plessis, cardinal de riche-lieu, and henceforth he was in the service of France. In 1631, he helped Richelieu gain the Treaty of Pignerol. Nuncio to Paris (1635-36), he was named cardinal by Richelieu (although he was never ordained), and Mazarin soon became his principal collaborator after the death of père joseph. Because of Mazarin's intelligence and ability, King louis x III gave him the direction of the Royal Council upon Richelieu's death. upon Louis's death in 1643, his widow, the regent, Queen anne of Austria, chose him as her chief minister and tutor to the young king louis XIV. Mazarin, who most likely was the queen's lover (perhaps they even married), continued Richelieu's absolutist policies, asserting royal authority at home and French authority abroad. He successfully concluded the thirty years' war (Treaty of Westphalia), weakened Habsburg power, and gained alsace for France. However, because of his insensi-tivity to conditions at home, mainly the high taxes and food shortages caused by the war, Mazarin was unpopular. in 1648, his arrest of a dissident magistrate sparked the fronde rebellion. Hatred of Mazarin unified the population of Paris and the nobility in a struggle against royal absolutism. Anne, Louis, and Mazarin were driven out of Paris. Eventually, the royal family returned, but Mazarin went into exile in Germany, from where he directed the suppression of the rebellion. He returned victorious to Paris in 1653 and devoted himself to training Louis XIV in government, diplomacy, and military affairs. The final achievement of his political career was the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), which ended long hostilities with spain, gained the provinces of Roussillon and Artois for France, and acquired a Spanish bride for Louis XIV. Mazarin, who continued the work of Richelieu, remained in power until his death, and left Louis XIV the legacy of absolutist rule. He had also, in his lifetime, amassed a large fortune, enriching himself and his family (see mancini family), acquired a magnificent art collection and a library that he donated to the state (the present Bibliothèque Mazarine), and founded the Collège des Quatre-Nations (the present Institut de France) and the Academy of Painting and sculpture.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mazarin, Jules Cardinal — orig. Giulio Raimondo Mazarini born July 14, 1602, Pescina, Abruzzi, Kingdom of Naples died March 9, 1661, Vincennes, France Italian French cardinal and statesman. A member of the papal diplomatic service (1627–34), he negotiated an end to the… …   Universalium

  • Mazarin, Jules, Cardinal — ▪ French cardinal and statesman Introduction original Italian in full  Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino, or Mazarini  born July 14, 1602, Pescina, Abruzzi, Kingdom of Naples [now in Italy] died March 9, 1661, Vincennes, France  first minister of France… …   Universalium

  • MAZARIN, JULES —    cardinal, born at Piscina, Abruzzi; having been sent by the Pope one of an embassy to France, he gained the favour of Richelieu, who recommended him to Louis XIII. as his successor, and whose successor, being naturalised as a Frenchman, he… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Mazarin, Jules — (1602–61)    Politician and Cardinal.    Mazarin was born in Piscina, Abruzzi, and he was educated in Rome and in Acalá, Spain. After a military and diplomatic career, he entered the service of the Church. He became a naturalised Frenchman in… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Mazarin,Jules — Maz·a·rin (măz ə răɴʹ), Jules. 1602 1661. Italian born French cardinal who exercised great political influence as the tutor and chief minister to Louis XIV. * * * …   Universalium

  • cardinal — cardinally, adv. cardinalship, n. /kahr dn l/, adj. 1. of prime importance; chief; principal: of cardinal significance. 2. of the color cardinal. n. 3. Rom. Cath. Ch. a high ecclesiastic appointed by the pope to the College of Cardinals and… …   Universalium

  • Jules — /joohlz/; Fr. /zhyuul/, n. a male given name, French form of Julius. * * * (as used in expressions) Ayer Sir Alfred Jules Bordet Jules Jean Baptiste–Vincent Dubos René Jules Dumont d Urville Jules Sébastien César Feiffer Jules Ferry Jules… …   Universalium

  • Cardinal Mazarin — Jules Mazarin Pour les articles homonymes, voir Mazarin (homonymie). Cardinal …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Cardinal de Mazarin — Jules Mazarin Pour les articles homonymes, voir Mazarin (homonymie). Cardinal …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mazarin — Jules Mazarin Pour les articles homonymes, voir Mazarin (homonymie). Cardinal …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.